Many Connections. One U.

Science Methods



Instructor:        Dr. Sam Hausfather                                            Fall 2000                         


Processes, values, and goals of science in early childhood education (P-5).  Methods, materials, and content needed for teaching and integrating hands-on science for diverse students. Laboratory work required.  PR: Admittance to teacher-education program.


Science is often ignored in the elementary school curriculum, and by eighth grade, American children consistently score lower than many of their counterparts across the world.  The purpose of this course is to assist you in acquiring the skills, knowledge, and attitudes necessary in developing your pupils’ wonder and enjoyment of investigating science.  The course will provide a basis for doing science in classrooms through knowledge of historical and philosophical underpinnings of science education and broad science content studies, developing “the head”.  You will experience various models of teaching, including inquiry learning, cooperative learning, conceptual change instruction, using textbooks as resources, and integrated instruction, developing “the hands”.  The values underlying science education will be explored, building on your ability to enhance the social awareness of diverse learners, developing “the heart”.

COURSE OBJECTIVES & EXPECTED OUTCOMES:  (Goals from Berry College Model of T.E. follow in parenthesis).  Upon completion of this course, students will be able to:

   1.   explain processes, values, and goals of science education both historically and currently (BC1,12);
   2.   plan and implement inquiry learning lessons and units, with and without textbooks (BC8,9,10);
   3.   demonstrate knowledge of constructivist teaching strategies and their relationship to children’s conceptions of science (BC2,3,9,10);
   4.   develop critical thinking and decision-making skills of young children (BC2,12);
   5.   understand implications of teaching in a multicultural society, and the import of creating an inclusive environment for minority, special need, second-language, and female students in the science classroom (BC11,13,16);
   6.   plan instruction to include both the processes and the content of science based on national and state standards (including QCC) (BC1,2,9);
   7.   align instructional practices with pupils’ developmental levels (BC4,9,11);
   8.   demonstrate instructional competency in managing and organizing science experiences, including questioning, cooperative learning strategies, planning investigations, and safety techniques (BC2,8,9,14);
   9.   plan a teaching unit which integrates science lessons with other content areas (BC7);
  10.   write alternative assessment plans and questions (BC3);
  11.   locate and use science resources and materials, including internet, computer-based, and innovative science programs (BC10);
  12.   demonstrate knowledge of some major concepts of science content in physical, life, and earth sciences (BC1);
  13.   appreciate and apply the connections between science and technology (BC1,10); and
  14.   enjoy doing science! (BC5,15)      


This course will provide a hands-on experience with science.  Students will participate in multiple experiences with the processes and materials of science, including simulations, experiments, cooperative group decision-making, and outdoor activities.  The instructor will also provide background lectures, demonstrations, and classroom discussions.  Students will peer-teach two lessons in class and attend a practicum experience in an area school.  Reflection assignments and journals will be used for the student to analyze the teaching they observe others doing as well as their own teaching.  Students will carefully analyze curricular materials, interview a student, and develop an integrated unit.  Tests will require factual recall of content knowledge as well as interpretive applications of pedagogical techniques.


Students are expected to attend all classes.  More than two unexcused absences will cause reductions in the participation aspect of the class grade.  Excessive excused absences will also effect participation grades negatively. 


1.  Science Autobiography: Write a short autobiography highlighting your experiences with science.
2.  Child Interview: Interview a child to reveal their own ideas about a concept in science.  Video or audio-tape and write reflections describing the interview and what you learned.
3.  Text Analysis: Analyze a science textbook and a science project/kit, describing the lessons, approaches, and usefulness of each.
4.  2 science lessons: Write 2 lesson plans using the Berry format and teach each one to a group of your peers in class.  Analyze and reflect on your effectiveness in teaching a particular concept.
5.  Unit plan: Research and write an integrated unit plan covering 5-10 science lessons with accompanying ideas for interdisciplinary linkages.
6.  Field Experience: Participate in a field experience in a local elementary school.  Teach at least one science-related lesson in the field experience classroom.  Provide weekly reflections on your experiences.
7.  Lab Experiences: Participate in science experiences and create experiments in and out of class.  Record findings and reflect on your understanding of content and methods.
8.  Tests: Demonstrate your understanding of selected science content and teaching methods.


The following assignments from EDU 407/607 may become artifacts in your teaching portfolio which will be completed during your student teaching semester.  Although there are many goals these might fulfill, I recommend specific goals they appear to align with especially well.  Retain these with your notes about why they may fulfill these particular goals.  Goals are listed by number from the Berry College Teacher Education Unit Program Goals.

1.  Science Autobiography: Goal 5
2.  Child Interview/Tape: Goal 3, Goal 4
3.  Text Analysis: Goal 9, Goal 10
4.  2 science lessons: Goal 1, Goal 2, Goal 8, Goal 9, Goal 5
5.  Unit plan: Goal 1, Goal 2, Goal 7, Goal 8, Goal 9, Goal 10
6.  Field Experience Journal: Goal 2, Goal 5, Goal 8, Goal 11, Goal 12
7.  Lab Experiences: Goal 1
When you assemble your portfolio, you will be asked to answer the following questions about each artifact you include.  Consider jotting some notes about each assignment so you can remember its role in your growth as a teacher.
1.  This piece of evidence demonstrates the following progress about my learning and growth as a teacher (include statement of goals met).
2.  The rationale for including this documentation of evidence in my portfolio.
3.  Based on this evidence, I need to . . .


This course requires a field experience.  You must submit a request for field experience to the Office of Field Experiences.  You will be expected to fulfill certain assignments for this course in a classroom setting.

EVALUATION COMPONENTS:                                                               Objectives

Lesson Plans/Peer Teaching/Analysis (2)                              10%             2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 11
Unit Plan                                                                             20%             2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11
Practicum:  Analysis & reflections                                        10%             1, 3, 4, 5, 8
Tests and quizzes                                                                30%             Test 1:  1, 4, 5, 6, 13
                                                                                                                        Test 2: 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 12
                                                                                                                       Test 3: 2, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13
Text analysis                                                                       10%             1, 2, 5, 11
Sci autobio                                                                           5%             1, 5, 14
Child Interview                                                                     10%            3, 4, 7
Short responses/ Participation in class                                    5%            14

GRADING SCALE:                              �
A   90-100%    �
B   80-89%
C   70-79%
D   65-69%
F   Below 65%


(M) Martin, Sexton, Wagner, & Gerlovich (1997).  Teaching Science for All Children.  Allyn and Bacon.
(R) Reprints to be handed out (others will be added):
1.         “Why my kids hate science”, R. Hazen (Newsweek, 2/25/91).
2.         “Children’s own concepts,”R. Osborne (Harlen Ch.7, 1985).
3.         “Teaching for conceptual change: Confronting children’s experience”, Watson & Konicek (Kappan, 5/90).
4.         “Teaching strategies for developing understanding in science”, R. Needham (1987).
5.         “Performance assessment: 5 Practical approaches” (S&C, 10/94).
6.         from Cooperation in the Classroom, Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec (1988).
7.         “Development of theme-based, interdisciplinary, integrated curriculum: A theoretical model”. Lonning, DeFranco,, & Weinland. School Science and Mathematics (1998)
8          from Behavior of mealworms, ESS (1966).
9.         “When Students Don’t Know, They Don’t Know,” Eaton, Anderson, & Smith (S&C, 4/83).
10.       “Spring defeats Winter,” from Keepers of the Earth, Caduto & Bruchac (1989).
Elementary science textbooks and resource materials manuals as needed


Date                             Topics                                                      Objectives        Read                   Assignments 

Aug 29              Oobleck Investigation/Introduction          1,14     

 Aug 31              Scientific Convention/Methods               1,5,6,11            R:1             Design Science experience

 Sep 5               What is science?                                                  1,4                    M:1                      SciAutobio
                           Where is school science?                                                         (p.2-14)                                    

Sep 7               Science processes: Basic                            1,4,6,11               M:1 (p. 14-31)
                           Rocks & Charts                                                                              R: Processes 

 Sep 12              Science processes: Integrated               1,2,4,6,11           R: Processes

 Sep 14              Science processes: Experimenting         1,2,4,6,8           R: Processes
                              Ice Cubes Investigation

 Sep 19              Children’s beliefs in science                        3,4,7                 M:2 (p.34-45)
                             Interviewing children                                                                  R:2

 Sep 21              Theories of how children learn                  3,4,7                 M:2 (p.45-64)
                             Constructivism in science

 Sep 26              Goals and standards of sci. ed.                   1,6,13               M:4

 Sep 28              Reflections/ TEST 1

 Oct 3                Concept mapping                                          8,11,12                M:5(p.143-153)�
                             Heat & conceptual change                                                       R:3

 Oct 5                Constructivist lesson planning                2,3,4,6,7           M:5(p. 153-164)     Child Interview
                             Electricity                                                                                      R:4

 Oct 10              Assessment                                                       6,7,10               M:5(p. 164-189)   �
                             Magnetism                                                                                         R:5

 Oct 12              History of Science Education                       2,6,7,11            M:7
                              National Science Projects                                                         

 Oct 19              Critical view of textbooks                               2,3,4,6,8           M:9(p.298-327)     Practicum 1
                              Inquiry Lesson Planning, QCC                                                  M:11(p. 388-401)

 Oct 24              Cooperative learning                                          4,8,12               M:9(p. 327-335)
                             Chemistry: Mystery powders                                                     R:6, Phy.Sci.

 Oct 26              Reflections/ TEST 2

 Oct 31              Creating interdisciplinary units                         8,9,11,12           R: 7                     Peer Teach   �
                             Integrated instruction

 Nov 2               Demonstrations/Direct Instruction                 4,7,8,12            M:11                    Peer Teach
                              Fire                                                                                                          (p. 372-388)         

 Nov 7               Life science intro/ mealworms                       2,4,11,12           R: Life Sci.           Text Analysis

Nov 9               Questioning/Human Body                                  2,8,10,12           M:10                    Peer Teach
                            Share text analysis    

Nov 14              Multi-cultural issues                                               5,7,8                 M:3                      Peer Teach
                             Plant dissection                                                                                  (p. 66-87)

 Nov 16              Learning differences/Spec. Ed.                     5,8,12               M:3(p.87-111)       Peer Teach
                              Photosynthesis                                                                                R:9

 Nov 21              Earth Science Intro                                             3,8,11,12           R: Earth Sci.
                                Seasons/Private Universe                                                            R: 10

 Nov 28              Technology                                                                 11,12,13            M:8                      Peer Teach
                              Where is the moon; Phases

 Nov 30              Safety & Management                                            8,11,12                 M:6                   Peer Teach
                              The Cosmos                                                                                                                           Unit Plan

 Dec 5               Simulations/Science research                                   3,8,12,13                                      Peer Teach
                            Tectonics/Earthquakes & Volcanoes

 Dec 7               Review & Reflections                                                                                                               Practicum
                            Professionalism                                                                                                                         Lesson Plans

 Dec 15              TEST 3 (Friday 8-10)

OPTIONAL READINGS:  Resource and reference readings available at the media center in Evans (“Media Center”) or in Memorial library (“Library”).

 Abruscato, Joseph.  The Whole Cosmos Catalog of Sci. Activities.  Media Center, Q164 .A26 1991

Ahouse.  Fingerprinting. Media Center,  HV6074 .A46 1987

Baines, John D.  Acid Rain.  Media Center, TD195.44 .B35 1990

Barber, Jacqueline.  Bubble Festival: Presenting Bubble Activities in a Learning Station Format,  Media Center,  QC138 .B37 1992

Barber, Jacqueline.  Chemical Reactions, Media Center, QD455.5 .B37 1993

Butzow, Carol.  Science Through Children’s Lit: An Integrated Approach, Media Center, LB1585 .B85 1989

Bybee, Rodger W.  Reforming Science Education: Social Perspectives and Personal Reflections. Library, Q183.3 .A1 B93 1993

Caduto, Michael.  Keepers of the Earth: Native Amer. Stories…,  Media Center, E98 .F6 C12 1988

DeVito, Alfred.  Creative Sciencing: Ideas & Activities for Teachers & Children. Media Center, LB1585 .D433 1991

Echols, Jean.  Buzzing a Hive.   Media Center,  QL568 .A6 E34 1989

Echols, Jean.  Hide a Butterfly.  Media Center,  QL767 .E64 1991

Freedman, Robin.  Connections:  Science by Writing.  Library, LB1585 .F73 1990

Gates, Julie.  Consider the Earth: Evnironmental Activities for Grades 4-8.  Media Center,  QH541.24 .G38 1989

Genishi, Celia.  Ways of Assessing Children and Curriculum: Stories of Early Childhood Practice.  Library, LB1115 .W439 1992

Gold, Carol.  Science Express:  50 Scientific Stunts from the Ontario Science Center. Media Center, Q164 .S294 1991

Grier, Katherine.  Discover:  Investigate the Mysteries of History with 40 Practical Projects Probing our Past.  Media Center,  Q164 .G75 1990

Hassard, Jack.  Science Experiences: Cooperative Learning and the Teaching of Science. Library, LB1585.3 .H38 1990

Hein, Ed.  The Assessment of Hands‑On Elem. Sci. Program

Hocking, Colin.  Global Warming & the Greenhouse Effect.  Media Center,  QC981.8 .G56 G5 1990

Kopp.  Frog Math

Levenson, Elaine.  Teaching Children About Science: Ideas and Activities Every Teacher & Parent can use.   Media Center,  LB1585 .L395 1985

Lind, Karen.  Water, Stones, and Fossil Bones: Earth Science Activities for Elem. & Middle Level Grades.   Media Center, QE441 .W37 1991

Lounsbury, John N.  Connecting the Curriculum Through Interdisciplinary Instruction.  Library, LB1628.5  .C66 1992

Ostlund, Karen.   Science Process Skills:  Assessing Hands-On Student Performance. Media Center, Q180.55 .M4 085

Project 2061.  Benchmarks for Science Literacy.  Library, Q183.3 .A1 B46 1993

Rowe, Mary Budd.  Process of Knowing, (Vol. 6.)  Library, LB 1585 .P76 1990

Rutherford, Floyd James.  Science for All Americans.  Library, Q158.5 .R87 1990

Schafer.  Taking Charge:  An Intro. to Electricity

Sharan, Yael.  Expanding Cooperative Learning Through Group Investigation.  Library, LB1032 .S456 1992

Sierra, Judy.  Cinderella.  Media Center, PZ8 .S3456 OR 1992

Smith, Sean.  Project Earth Science: Astronomy.   Media Center, QB61 .S553 1992

Sneider,Cary.  Earth, Moon, and Stars.  Media Center, QB62 .S63 1993

Sneider Cary.  More Than Magnifiers.  Media Center,  QC385.5 .S64 1991

Sneider, Cary.   Ooobleck:  What Do Scientists Do?.  Media Center, LB1585 .S64 1991

Sneider, Cary.   Paper Towel Testing.  Media Center, TX335 .S64 1990

Sneider,Cary.   To Build a House

Stevenson, Chris.  Integrated Studies in the Middle Grades: Dancing through Walls. Library,  LB623.5 .I58 1993

Flack, Jerry.  Inventing, Inventions, and Inventors.  Media Center, T65.3 .F57 1989

Kaner, Etta.  Sound Science.  Media Center

Kneidel, Sally.  Creepy Crawlies and the Scientific Method.  Media Center, QL52.6 .K58 1993

Fleer, Marilyn.  They Don;t Tell The Truth About The Wind: Hands-On Exploration in K-3 Science.  Library, LB1139.5 >S35 T44 1996

Butzow, Carol.  Intermediate Science Through Children’s Literature. Library  LB1585 .B84 1994

Cuomo, Celia.  In All Probability.  Media Center, QA273.2 .C86 1993

Gallas, Karen.  Talking Their Way Into Science.  Library, Q173 .632 1995

Levenson, Elaine.  Teaching Children About Physical Science. Media Center

McCormack, Alan J. Inventors Workshop. Media Center, T212 .M37 1981

Munsart, Craig.  Investigating Science With Dinosaurs.  Media Center, LB1585.3 .M86 1993

Shapiro, Bonnie L. What Children Bring to Light. Library, LB1585.3 .553 1994

Smith, P. Sean.  Project Earth Science.  Media Center, QC869.3 .565 1994

Smith, Karlene.  Investigating Science Through Bears.  Media Center, LB1585 .558 1994

St. Andre, Ralph.  Simple Machines Made Simple.  Media Center, TS147 .S72 1993

Strongin, Herb.   Science on a Shoestring.  Media Center, LB1585 .S761 1991

Tolley, Kimberley.  The Art and Science Connection.  Media Center, LB1585 .T65 1994

Marek, Edmund.  The Learning Cycle: Elementary School Science and Beyond. Library, LB1585.3 .R395 1997

Cerullo, Mary.  Reading the Environment: Children’s Literature in the Science Classroom.  Library, LB1585.3 .C47 1997

Echols, Jean.  Eggs Eggs Everywhere: Teacher’s Guide

Barrett, Katharine.  Investigating Artifacts: Making Masks, Creating Myths, Exploring Middens: Teacher’s Guide.  Library, CC83 .I5 1992

Strang, Craig.  On Sandy Shores: Teacher’s Guide.  Library, GB454 .B3 S72 1996

Tilley, Rebecca.  Secret Formulas: GEMS Teacher’s Guide.  Library, LB1585 .T74 1996

Lowell, Laura.  Sifting Through Science: Teacher’s Guide.  Library, LB1585 .L68 1997

Kopp, Jaine.  Treasure Boxes: Teacher’s Guide.  Library, QA135.5 .K665 1997

Barber, Jacqueline.  Vitamin C Testing: Teacher’s Guide.  Library, TX553 .V5 B37 1988

Heizer, Karen.  Wonder Wise.  Library, LB1585 .H366 W845 1994

Taylor, Beverley.  Teaching Physics With Toys: Activities for Grades K-9.  Library, QC39.5 .T39 1995

Sarquis, Jerry L.  Investigating Solids, Liquids, and Gases with TOYS: States of Matter and Changes of   State.  Library, QC173.3 .I59 1997

Tolman, Marvin.  Hands-On Earth Science Activities; for Grades K-8.  Library, QE40 .T62 1995

Tolman, Marvin.  Hands-On Life Science Activities for Grades K-8.  Library, QH315 .T598 1996

Tolman, Marvin.  Hands-On Physical Science Activities: for Grades K-8.  Library, QC30 .T57 1995

Aldridge, Bill.  What is Light and How Do We Explain It?  Library, QC357 .A54 1996

Beisenherz, Paul C.  Using the Learning Cycle. Library, Q181 .B438 1996

Layman, John W.  Inquiry and Learning: Realizing Science Standards in the Classroom. Q183.3 .A1 L39 1996

Hartman, William.  Craters! A Multi-Science Approach to Cratering and Impacts. Library, QB755 .H257 1995

Reddy, Maureen.  Creating Scientific Communities in the Elementary Classroom.  Library, LB1585.3 .C74 1998

Driver, Rosalind.  Young People’s Images of Science.  Library, Q181 .D69 1996

Harlen, Wynne.  The Teaching of Science in Primary Schools.  LB1585.5 .G7 H38 1996

Science Workshop.   Library,LB1585.3 .536 1993

Once Upon a GEMS Guide.  Media Center, QA135.5 .063 1993

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